Friday, 7 December 2018

INTRODUCING A NEW SERIES - THE MOZART FILES: FACTS VS. FICTION EPISODE 1: MOZART'S BURIAL

In light of the 227th observance of the death of Unraveling Musical Myths' favorite composer, Wolfgang "Amadè" Mozart, I have decided to launch early the first installment in my new series on the composer "The Mozart Files: Facts vs. Fiction."

I was first inspired to create this series after reading one too many articles containing often repeated, falsified accounts of Herr Mozart in both reputable news media and on educational-themed, pop-culture-slanted websites (which shall remain nameless.)

Unfortunately where Mozart is concerned, details concerning his demise and of the events that occurred post-mortem are, and have been for generations, supported by as much - or perhaps even more - grandiose tales of legend than by factual biographical data which may be quite readily cross-referenced against archival material (much of it made available for public access via the modern trend of digitizing personal letters, registers, and related memorabilia.)

Sometimes, discrepancies may be traced to poor translation from the German tongue - however more often, dubious accounts of Mozart's life have simply been passed down though the musical ages - fantastical dramatizations of otherwise unremarkable events that have permeated even the seams of modern pop-culture, often the direct result of overactive imaginations, exaggerations, and through the practice of quoting from quasi-biopic, dated material rife with fiction.

How fitting it is, then, to begin with the funeral of Wolfgang Amadè Mozart, which occurred today - on the 7th of December, in 1791. 

The reader may already be familiar with the melancholic story of Mozart, lying stiff in his coffin, the icy chill surrounding his corpse the result not just of a severe case of rigor mortis, but of an (appropriately) dramatic storm of snow, rain, violent wind (and thunder!) which raged so untameable it forced an already ill-manned procession (which may or may not have included Franz Xaver Süssmayr as a pallbearer) to turn back at the gates of St. Marx Cemetery.

You may have even bore witness to iconography depicting the same scene - or perhaps, even more pitiably, depicting a lonesome pup, it's tail tucked in between its legs and head drooped woefully toward the earth as it follows a horse-driven hearse with his friendless Master inside - together making the doleful journey toward the graveyard under the cover of a frigid, moonless night:

"Mozarts Begräbnis" - c. 1860 engraving depicting a fabled journey of Mozart's corpse w/ poem: "Mozart's Burial"
Translation of poem into English: "As the storm roars about, on the snow-covered field / On the final path, brightened by no beam of light /  He heads on alone; no eye weeps for him, / Only his loyal dog follows along, his only friend."
This portrayal, attr. Joseph Heicke bears striking similarity to an earlier coloured French Print by Pierre-Roch Vigneron, "Convoi du Pauvre" (Poor Man's Procession, c. 1800), now in Austrian archives. Ludwig van Beethoven is said to have hung a copy of Vigneron's engraving in his home as a reminder of his hero's humble burial. Even through recycled
iconography, we find material originally and wholly unrelated to Mozart take on an apocryphal association post-mortem.



.
Even notable early biographers have re-told their versions of the mournful scenario: an early biography by Otto Jahn has Mozart "receiv[ing] Benediction at St. Stephen's Church" on December 6th - shortly before winter's early sunset at 3 PM, before being accosted by

"a heavy storm of snow and rain [which was] raging...[which caused] the few friends who had assembled for the funeral procession [to stand] with umbrellas around the bier.. [the body] was then carried through the Schulerstrasse to the Cemetery of St. Mark. As the storm grew worse, the mourners decided to turn back at the gate, so that not a friend stood by when the body was lowered into the grave."[1]

The first known appearance of this sordid scene was recorded in the Vienna Morgen-Post on 28 January 1856 (a whopping 65 years after Mozart's death.) The story below which made it to print has been attributed to tavern owner Joseph Deiner (d. 29 May 1823) of "The Silver Snake." It was printed thusly:

"The night of Mozart's death was dark and stormy; at the funeral, too, it began to rage and storm. Rain and snow fell at the same time, as if Nature wanted to shew her anger with the great composer's contemporaries, who had turned out extremely sparsely for his burial. Only a few friends and three women accompanied the corpse. Mozart's wife was not present. These few people with their umbrellas stood round the bier, which then taken via the Grosse Schullerstrasse to the St. Marx Cemetery. As the storm grew ever more violent, even these few friends determined to turn back at the Stuben Gate, and they betook themselves to the "Silver Snake."[2]

Memorial tablet at St. Marx Cemetery, positioned at a
location believed by some to be Mozart's grave. Image:
Invisigoth67 [CC BY-SA 2.5], Wikimedia Commons
Subsequent biographers further added their own variations to this scene: In Hugo Riemann's Musiklexikon (1882), Mozart's "few friends" would not even make it to the cemetery gate - already having turned back halfway through the journey to the graveyard due to the fury of the storm. Ernest Newman, in his Stories of the Great Operas, published in 1928, posits the inclusion of composers Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Emanuel Schikaneder, the baron Gottfried van Swieten and even Antonio Salieri as members of the procession. "It is thought,"  Newman contests, the men were there, alongside a "faithful Süssmayr" but that "heavy snow" and "appalling" weather...drove them home."

This contradicts the account told by Georg Nikolaus von Nissen, early Mozart biographer and second husband of Mozart's widow Constanze, who reported that Schikaneder had steered clear of the procession and funeral for the latter's stated reason that "his ghost follows me everywhere, I see him wherever I look."[3] Even more curious is the allegation made by Joseph Deiner, the aforementioned owner of the Silver Snake Tavern and progenitor of the 'stormy burial' fable, who - despite the complete absence of corroborating accounts - places himself at Mozart's funeral as a member of the procession.

Such romantic, highly dramatic accounts of Herr Mozart were part and parcel of the oft-whispered tales of intrigue and scandal that surrounded the composer's final days. We have even seen Mozart depicted on the silver screen as a sort of morbid soothsayer - foreshadowing his own death through the creation of his own Requiem (for his own funeral, no less), and on both film and stage as an unwitting 'victim' of a grotesquely envious and frighteningly duplicitous Salieri. But such Doomsday-esque rumors didn't begin with Shaffer's “Amadeus,” nor even Pushkin's account of our beloved icon's demise. Like early biographers, they simply perpetuated myths, loosely based on fantastical interpretation and wild conspiracy theories. To put things into perspective, it was as recent at 1971, on the 180th anniversary of Mozart's death, that a “new” analysis into what killed the composer was published by biographers Johannes Duda, Gunter Kerner and Dieter Dalchow (“Mozart's Tod 1791-1971”) which played on an age-old hypothesis of mercury poisoning first made famous immediately following the composers death. 

*Early Mozart biographer, Franz Niemetscheck
may have had ulterior motives of the financial
ilk when he sought the testimonials of a deeply
indebted Constanze following the composers
untimely death. Much of these accounts have
since been discredited through the revelation
of contemporary registers and documentation.
His publication was the first full-length account
of Mozart's life - replacing the brief, 6000-word
mini-bio published 5 years earlier by Friedrich
Schlichtgeroll in the obituary volume "Nekrolog
auf das Jahr 1791."
It was the Czech philosopher Franz Xaver Niemetscheck who would become Mozart's first (full length) post-mortem biographer.* Mozart's widow Constanze willingly provided testimonials, both verbal and written, of her late husband's life to the critic - for Stanzi, it was a means to an economic end: Wolfgang's outstanding debts now rested squarely on her shoulders.[†] Niemetscheck certainly new how to play to a crowd - he famously printed in his biography a tale allegedly regaled upon him by the widow Mozart who claimed she had walked with a sickly Wolfgang in the Prater, whereupon he suddenly turned to face her, and, overcome with delirium, informed her “Indeed, I have been given poison.”  It didn't help matters when a delayed obituary, published one week after Mozart's death in a Berliner newspaper ("Musikalisches Wochenblatt”) announced, sight unseen, the state of his corpse: “Because his body swelled after death, it is believed he had been poisoned.”

Sensing a possible payday, aspiring writers almost immediately set pen to paper, expanding on Niemetschek's poison theory: potential assassins included disgruntled Freemasons to the wealthy baron van Swieten (who funded Mozart's third-class funeral), to Salieri, who was falsely alleged to have proclaimed himself a murderer whilst incarcerated in a mental asylum (an allegation later discounted by his around-the-clock caregivers.)

The reality is, we really don't know what killed Mozart. His cause and manner of death were never officially documented, save for a vague blip in a Viennese death register, written not by an attending physician, but rather a city official (as it was not customary for a doctor to prepare a death certificate in 1791 Vienna.) It simply reads:

“On 5 December 1791, the honorable Wolfgang Amadeus K.K. Kappellmeister and chamber composer died in a small Kaiserhouse in Rauhensteinergasse in Vienna of fevered prickly heat”[4]

Excerpt from the Official death register at St. Stephen's.
Dated 6.12.1791, this timestamp is widely believed among
modern scholars to have been an error on the part of the
city official who recorded it.  A known laxity in regard to
attention to detail combined with multiple contemporary
weather reports (both public and private) refute a
December 6 burial for Herr Mozart.
Given that the description offered forth in the official register is symptomatic – not diagnostic – compounded by the fact that no DNA exists of Mozart's corpse – his remains now lost to the world – one can only offer educated guesses, or, as has often been the case, substitute for fact outright fiction in order to fill in the blanks. Modern analyses frequently presented by physicians theorizing in absentia must therefore be interpreted with much caution. Regardless of advances in modern medicine and technology, one must be mindful of the primitive state of medicine in the late 18th century. The symptom of hitziges Frieselfieber attributed to Mozart was a common one in Mozart's time – and it ran the gamut, covering a variety of maladies, both treatable and fatal. We mustn't forget the era in which Mozart lived, thrived, and died was not far removed from medieval interpretation and treatment of disease.

But what can be ascertained – and most certainly has been ascertained through the discovery of archival material are the circumstances surrounding Mozart's funeral. We now know, thanks to the revelation of contemporary documents, that Mozart's funeral did not occur on the 6th of December, nor was a violent storm brewing that afternoon. An entry in the diary of Saxon-Austrian civil servant Karl von Zinzendorf, well known to Mozart, dated 6th December 1791 (the day of the alleged funeral) describes "mild weather and frequent mist" – a far cry from a thunderous storm or frigid blizzard. Additionally, a weather report which appeared in the court sanctioned Wiener Zeitung (Vienna Newspaper) speaks only of a "light north wind and temperatures hovering slightly over freezing."[5]

In other words, the skies were clear.

Groundbreaking research by Dr. Carl Bär in the late 20th century would uncover even more documented evidence refuting the accounts of a December 6th burial. In an erudite report, "Mozart, Krankheit, Tod und Begräbnis" (1967, 2/ 1972), Bär would expose in detail the fine minutiae of Josephine law in regard to burials. Chiefly, Mozart's body could not have been buried in daylight hours. If "Benediction" truly occurred at 3PM, even a leisurely walking pace 4.1 km south to St. Marx would have taken under an hour, placing the funeral party at the cemetery just before 4PM.  Even with the early sunset brought upon by the winter season, the sky would not have been devoid of light - the procession would have arrived at Stuben gate well before Twilight. Furthermore, a law, enforced by Joseph II strictly forbade even the parking of hearses in front of local taverns before sundown. Bodies were only permitted to receive burial following sunset (after 6 PM) - a by-product of an not-always irrational fear of being buried alive which had seized Vienna and even permeated the Imperial court (such events did occur - this was the 18th century.) The Emperor's new law decreed that a mandatory 48 hour period must elapse before a body could be interred – an exercise in overabundant caution against the potential of an unfortunate soul being buried whilst in a coma.[6]

Not Mozart's grave: this mid-19th century lithograph, after an
original engraving, depicts the result of an official inquiry into
the "disappearance" of Mozart's corpse. Held in 1855, it relied
on the testimonies, provided no earlier than a half-century post
mortem, of an auditor (who offered memories from his youth
of being told of the location of the grave by his mother), the
dubious assertion by the Sexton at St. Marx, who claimed to
have been in possession of "Mozart's skull" (which he later
alleges he transferred to the anatomist Josef Hrytl), and from
the word of flautist Carl Scholl, whose shaky credibility lay
only in the fact that he knew Mozart personally whilst the
composer was alive. This engraving may be arguably viewed
an early example of the type of rumor, built on confusion, that
enabled later inquirers to plant the seeds of a "mass grave
theory." Note the numerous, unnamed crosses which dot the
surface of a large mound. (see: footnotes)
- "Grab von Wolfgang A. Mozart," anon., Österreich.
.
This would have placed Mozart at St. Marx Cemetery on the evening of the 7th December. Eyewitness accounts to the composers' Consecration survive which place his body at a side chapel (the Crucifix Chapel) adjacent St. Stephen's Cathedral though the night of the 6th,[7] yet the dramatic account of an afternoon burial that day continue to persist even today. Such apocryphal legends do have their place, however, in painting a picture of Mozart: a bright light, burning like a seemingly unquenchable flame – violently snuffed out by King Death storming in on his black steed, clawed hook at the ready to snatch away the bright beacon on the hill, resigning his soul to an empty fate within the depths of a lonely, dark abyss.

We see this pitiable picture painted anew with a fresh coating as Mozart's corpse is said to have been callously tossed into a mass grave to rot among strangers – all of them too poor to have afforded a casket and individual grave, too destitute for anyone to claim them. Lost to the world.

Except, nothing could be further from the truth.

Mozart may have had a third-class funeral (note: not a "pauper's funeral" as it is frequently described), and one which was funded through a former colleague (by the baron van Swieten), however he was not, by modern, or even by contemporary standards, “poor.” Mozart's final year on earth was shockingly productive, and he earned a handsome enough wage to live comfortably in Vienna.[8] His debts, on the other hand, were insurmountable – he frequently borrowed more than he could pay back, his wages being spent on both frivolous (such as on a horse and carriage and an expensive apartment far larger than was necessary to house his small family) and on arguably necessary means: the sudden death and hasty burial of infant daughter Anna Maria two years previous and Constanze's spa treatments at Baden alone were enough to set Wolfgang's ledger askew.

Dramatic depictions and even Deifications of Mozart after death were not solely relegated to the literary sphere.
In this engraving by Amadeus Wenzel Böhm "Apotheose W. A. Mozart," we witness, alongside a weeping
Constanze and the couple's infant son, Franz Xaver, the "Apotheosis," or divinization of Mozart, as he transcends
the invisible barrier between earth and heaven, and between mortal man and immortal god. Note the flowing
Roman-esque coiffure sported by Mozart on his 'graveside' cameo (a nod to the god of music, Apollo, with whom the composer was often compared) and the Marian-like draped garments worn by Constanze. It is hardly a surprise that little Franz is depicted in the nude - Böhm's engraving is drenched in both pagan and religious symbolism. The presence of nine stars which form a halo (the colloquial "Crown of Immortality") around Mozart's cranium may also contain Masonic significance.
A similar depiction of an
antiquated Mozart could be formerly found in a medallion of red wax over moulding, fashioned in ca. 1788 by the composers' confidante Leonhard Posch. That medal, which also depicts a long-tressed Mozart, disappeared from the Mozart Museum in Salzburg in 1945.

To begin to understand Mozart's burial – in a shaft grave, not a “common” or “mass” grave - we must first seek to comprehend the strict by-laws enforced by Joseph II at the time of the composer's passing.

On 23 August 1784, the emperor issued his “Burial Regulations of Joseph II” (Josephinische Begräbnisordnung.)[9] For reasons believed to be related to sanitation, not forgoing the possibility of being interred alive, the Emperor felt it necessary to stipulate how the body of a deceased individual could be properly disposed. His propositions included being wrapped in a linen sack and being covered in quicklime in order to aid in decomposition. By this logic, not only would the application of a caustic compound free up much needed space, the practice of dumping of corpses in linen sacks in lieu of coffins would provide the Emperor leeway to levy what he felt were fruitless expenses.

These regulations, however, ignited a furore among Viennese citizens, still reeling from the scandal decades earlier of mass graves filled with victims of the plague,[10] leading to the eventual revocation of the linen sack clause, which gained legal authority on 20 January 1785 in the revised K.K. Erblande.[11] The emperor was forced to decree the burial of corpses in coffins. These were not the apocryphal “false bottomed” coffins of lore, but individual coffins, which were to be stacked, five to six on top of another in a deep vertical pit known as a shaft grave.
This was not, by any means, an instruction to dig a large mass grave for the burial of untold numbers of bodies.

By the time of Mozart's death in 1791, the laws governing lackluster burials previously attempted by the Josephine leadership in 1784 had been made redundant for more than half a decade - quite simply, they were no longer - and never had been - enforceable.


"Allegorie auf den Genius Mozarts" (Allegory on the Genius
of Mozart) by Stich von Johann Adolf Roßmäßler depicts an
angelic putto crowning the 'god' Mozart, with a musician-angel
dictating music from the heavens to an earthly being - a play
on the age-old belief that Mozart's compositional gifts were
channeled from up on high by means of divine intervention.
As is the case with Böhm's engraving above, this too, depicts
the "apotheosis" of Mozart after death. | Österreich, 1794 |
A 3 tiered "class"-system remained in effect,[12] however - it dictated the level of ceremony (and, to an extent, the location of burial) for Viennese citizens. At the top of the hierarchy was the aristocracy - although a first class burial could be purchased even by a civilian for the right price. This has been colloquially referred to as a "Class One" funeral (not an official designation.) "Class Two" was reserved for public figures who could afford, through a last Will and Testament, donation, or other source of income a respectable "showing" (Beethoven was Class Two), and lastly and most common, there was "Class Three," to which most citizens, including Mozart belonged.

By the time of Mozart's death in 1791, the shaft grave was not at all an uncommon form of burial. It was economic for both Crown and state, and, foregoing dissolving bodies in quicklime, saved precious space. These vessels, however, often proved problematic - the graves would be cleared and re-used every nine years, leading to many a lost corpse. As of the writing of this post, we still do not know the precise location of Mozart's remains.

Further compounding the issue of shaft burial was Joseph II's decision to shutter all graveyards within the city wall, and build new ones outside of it for "health concerns" at the end of the 18th century, citing a mid-sixteenth century ordinance on the same grounds. Some bodies were shifted, many were lost (Vivaldi's corpse was lost this way). This left Vienna with very limited space to bury it's increasing population. As such, the vertical shaft grave was preferred en masse, and tombstones identifying the deceased were discouraged, although memorial tablets could be affixed to the perimeter wall.

Mozart's burial was not one performed in disgrace, but in necessary custom, enforced by a government seeking to rein in unnecessary expense, and was directly proportional to one's status and wealth at the time of death.


This concludes this installment of Mozart Myths: Facts vs. Fiction.

Be sure to check back in periodically for the next episode!


Enjoy below an English rendition of Mozart's aria "Ruhe Sanft, Mein Holdes Leben" (Safely Rest, my chosen lover.) English soprano Dame Felicity Lott sings an exquisite Zaide for the fabulous - yet fictional - masterpiece, "Amadeus," under maestro Neville Marriner.



Footnotes:

[†] It must also be mentioned that the widow Mozart, quite in contrast to her rather demure visage and unremarkable artistic talents, possessed an impressively shrewd business acumen.

Whilst Mozart lay under the frozen earth at St Marx - unattended by his wife - Constanze was busy amassing what would eventually become a sizeable sum and liveable wage on Terra firma. Her activities following her husband's untimely demise were carefully orchestrated to both exploit her status as the lonesome widow of a remarkable genius, and to fully capitalize, to the best of her efforts, on Mozart's legendary status.

Much has been made by biographers writing on Constanze about a free-verse poem, allegedly written in her own hand, in Wolfgang's Stammbuch (visitor album) adjacent a dedication made by the composer himself to a fallen friend and former doctor who had recently passed. That poem, which reads:


"What you wrote long ago, in honor of your friend, I repeat here for you, weighed down as I am by grief.
Beloved husband! Mozart! Immortal for me and for the whole of Europe, you too, are at rest, now - forever!!
At one hour after midnight, during the night of December 4 to 5th of this year,
He departed, in his 36th year - too soon, Oh! how much too soon -
eight years bound us together with an affectionate, indelible bond!
Oh! that I may soon be united with you forever.

your wife, distraught with grief

Vienna, December 5th, 1791

Constanze Mozart née Weber."
Mozart's widow Constanze proved to be
ever the shrewd businesswoman following
her famous husband's death.

has clearly been "pre-dated" (i.e. written at a much later date following Mozart's funeral, and subsequently added to the Stammbuch under the date of his death on the 5th December.)

What this proves is that much like the old adage which decrees a morsel of truth must lay behind every fiction, accounts of Constanze's noticeable absence at her husband's funeral (as regaled by Joseph Deiner) were in fact, correct.

But then, there were more pressing matters at hand for Stanzi - chief among them included the welfare and education of her two young sons with Wolfgang: Karl Thomas, aged 7, and 5 month-old Franz Xaver (the latter of whom would later receive an all-star tutorship under Antonio Salieri, Georg Joseph Volger, Johann Georg Albrechtsberger and Johann Nepomuk Hummel, financed through the generous donations of her late husband's former colleagues and friends - both boys would also receive education in Prague under Niemetschek, in whom Constanze would collaborate on the first post-mortem biography on Mozart.)

In less than one week following Mozart's death, Stanzi petitioned Leopold II for a pension in spite of restrictions which prohibited a bereaved party from receiving one should the deceased spouse have been in the Emperor's employ for under the mandatory 10 years required. It would be at the insistence and under the influence of the residing Minister of Finance, one Count Chotek, who pointed out that

"it would seem unbecoming for the imperial court to reduce to a beggar's state the widow of a man of such rare talent who had been in the Emperor's service"

Constanze after her marriage to Herr
von Nissen. This miniature by
Thomas Spitzer showcases Mozart's
former spouse clad in a lavish gown
and donning resplendent pearls.
that Leopold conceded. Constanze was granted a small percentage of her husband's annual salary (1/3, or 800 gulden) during his tenure as Imperial Chamber Composer, which was to begin retroactively, to 1 January, 1792.

Additionally, despite playing up the role of an impoverished widow (as a potential means of avoiding paying an inheritance tax), Mozart's debtors, would by all appearances, offer a fresh start for Stanzi - Wolfgang's chief creditor (and friend), the merchant Michael Puchberg (of whom Mozart owed 1000 gulden) refused to file a claim against the deceased composer's estate, setting a trend that would be followed by Mozart's remaining creditors. According to Nissen, theirs - and Puchberg's - names and claims were unanimously absent from the customary  "Notice to all Creditors." Constanze, would, however, re-reimburse Puchburg, albeit at a much later date, thanks in part to finances earned whilst holding a series of memorial concerts in her late husband's honor.

The remunerations received by Constanze via the Imperial court paled in contrast to the sizable fortune Mrs. Mozart would soon make through these concerts, launched throughout Vienna and Prague with sister (and Wolfgang's former love interest) Aloysia Lange as the star attraction (performing gratis, as it were, so that all profits went straight to Stanzi and her sons), and even billing on one occasion Ludwig van Beethoven - who adored Mozart -  to perform Wolfgang's piano concerto in D minor.

In addition to selling her husband's manuscripts and collaborating with Franz Xaver Niemetschek in addition to future husband #2, (Georg Nikolaus von Nissen, a Danish diplomat) on a biographies detailing the life of her first (the latter work she would sell in 1828, two years following Nissen's death), Constanze was able to enjoy a comfortable, well-traveled life post-Wolfgang. Outliving Mozart by 51 years, Stanzi would perish on 6th March 1842 at the age of 80.



Footnote:
The results of the official inquiry into the location of Mozart's remains were announced in 1855, to
coincide with the upcoming 100th anniversary of the composers' birth. It concluded the following:

"The place where Mozart's body was buried on 6 December 1791 is a long shaped quadrilateral at St. Marx' cemetery which is in the direction of the cemetery's cross adjoining the entrance, on the right of the main path and in the fifth row of the common grave. It is planted with young willows."
Bibliography:
[1]Slonimsky, Nicolas: The Weather at Mozart's Funeral, The Musical Quarterly Vol. 46 No 1 pp. 12, Jan. 1960, after Jahn, Otto: Life Of Mozart, Vol. III, 1856
[2]Deutsch, Otto Erich, Mozart: A Documentary Biography tr. Noble, Jeremy, 1965
[3]Nissen, Georg Nikolaus von: Biographie W.A. Mozarts, Leipzig, 1828, p. 572
[4]Bär, Carl, Mozart: Krankheit, Tod und Begräbnis, 1966 pp. 7-10
[5]Abert, Hermann tr. Spencer, Stewart, ed. Eisen, Cliff: W.A. Mozart, 2007, p. 1310
[6]Bär, Carl, Mozart: Krankheit, Tod und Begräbnis, 1966 pp. 126-157
[7]Abert, Hermann tr. Spencer, Stewart, ed. Eisen, Cliff: W.A. Mozart, 2007, p. 1310
[8]Keefe, Simon P.: Mozart 1st ed. (The Late Eighteeth Century Composers, excerpt: "Mozart in the Market-Place," Moore, Julia: Journal of the Royal Musical Association, 64, 1989, pp. 18-42)
[9,10,11]Lorenz, Michael: "Mozart and the Myth of Reusable Coffins," 1 July, 2013
[12]Stafford, William, after Bär, Carl: The Mozart Myths: A Critical Reassessment, 1991, p. 50
[†]Gärtner, Heinz: Constanze Mozart: After the Requiem, 1991, pp. 10-19; Cantagrel, Gilles: Mozart: Letters and Manuscripts, 2005, p. 202; Servatius, Viveca: Constanze Mozart: Eine Biografie (auf Deutsch), 2018, pp. 136

- Rose.

6 comments:

  1. Brava!

    Thoroughly researched, excellent post. This is just what I needed. Thank you!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Anonymous,

      Thank you for your kind comment - and you're very welcome!


      Kind Regards,

      Rose.

      Delete
  2. Vielen Dank für diesen informativen Artikel. Es ist erfrischend, über Constanze zu lesen!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hallo Stanze,

      Vielen Dank für Ihren Kommentar. Ich empfehle Ihnen, Constanze Mozart "Eine Biografie" von der schwedische Musikwissenschaftlerin Viveca Servatius zu lesen. Es wurde kürzlich ins Deutsche übersetzt.


      Mit freundlichen Grüßen,

      Rose.

      Delete
  3. Fantastic research. Would love to see more from this series...

    ReplyDelete
  4. Rose,

    I would like to thank you for the effort you put into this post. It is refreshing to read an article like this which delves into the archives and is backed by actual research. I have to agree with the poster above - I would like to see more from this series. They are invaluable to extending the legacy of Mozart.

    ReplyDelete